The smallest and purest silver particles for a safe and optimal result
Wat is nano zilver?
Nanosilver is a form of colloidal silver (also known as Silver water), in which the smallest possible particles of silver are dissolved in water. This colloidal silver water kills pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and yeasts, which we protect ourselves and our environment from unwanted intruders.
Indications for use
From 1900 onwards, colloidal silver was frequently used in a wide variety of complaints from skin irritation to meningitis! Doctors and pharmacists prescribed colloidal silver for, among other things: eye and ear infections,allergies, viral infections, conjunctivitis, bladder infections, gastric ulcers, appendicitis, abdominal flu, diarrhea and constipation, candida, blood poisoning, peritoneal inflammation, burns, bronchitis, eczema, shingles, psoriasis, acne, rubella and ringworm, flu, colds, sore throat, bronchitis, whooping cough, hepatitis, herpes, legionella, lymph node inflammation, malaria, multiple sclerosis, salmonella, fungal infections, thrush, Lyme disease, tuberculosis, gum infections and depressions. A miracle cure!
Many researchers from that time showed that silver and also mercury were very effective biocides. The work of Henry Crookes, from 1910, showed that B. Coli communes were killed by colloidal mercury in 2 minutes and by colloidal silver in 6 minutes.
The saying: “There is no pathogen that is not known to be killed in a laboratory within 6 minutes with colloidal silver” comes from this time, following the many test results.
In 1914, The Lancet published the work of Simpson and Hewlett, which showed that with a colloidal silver solution of 500 ppm, they could kill the bacterium Typhoid bacillus in 15 minutes, but also only two hours with only 5 ppm…! It was a breakthrough because 5ppm was entirely safe for human use.
Silver water thus gained unprecedented popularity.
In Europe and America, colloidal silver was so popular that as many as 94 different silver preparations were recorded in a short time as conventional medicine.
However, this registration was withdrawn in 1938. In the same year came the introduction of penicillin, which could be patented by isolation. A patent can save the pharmaceutical industry a lot of money. The publications on colloidal silver were drastically reduced, and the studies on silver became much more difficult to find.
In 1941, the commercial production of penicillin, aided by pressure from the war situation, got off to a good start and thus created a lucrative business that is still the most profitable trade worldwide! In 1995, in New York hospitals alone, 13,550 infections took place from the Staphylococcus Aureus bacterium, which resulted in a cost of no less than $435 million for the treatment of these bacteria! A gem for the pharmaceutical industry.
Silverwater gains attention again.
From 1960/1970, a revival of colloidal silver started again. In 1966 a very remarkable report from Brentano was published in the magazine “Surgical Forum”, which showed that colloidal and ionic silver solutions, as well as combinations of the two, had very positive effects in the treatment of burns. Many agents were tested, and silver was found to be the most effective, especially in the treatment of the Pseudomonas Aeruginosa bacterium, a bacterium notorious as a hospital bacteria for the infection of burn wounds.
Researchers and medical professionals made discoveries, rediscovered, wrote books, and improved the production process of colloidal silver. In many laboratories, glass culture dishes for bacteria were sterilized by inserting a silver plate. Since that time, silver has also been used in water treatment plants and water tanks in aviation and space travel. NASA came to the same conclusion: nanosilver is safe and extremely effective as a biocide. Since then, they use it to purify their drinking water. The Swiss firm Katadyn has for decades specialized in water purification and storage both for the food industry and for private use in, for example, hotels in the tropics. From that moment on, a lively market of home, garden, and kitchen appliances was created to make colloidal silver at home. Although people benefited and still benefit from it, the quality was and is many times less and not suitable for long-term internal use. Cases of Argyria were again found in people who drank about one liter of homemade silver a day for years on end because they felt good about it. Argyria is a gray/blue discoloration of the skin caused by large silver particles of silver salts that continue to “stick” in the tissue and cause discoloration there. Fortunately, with high-quality products, that is a thing of the past.
Since around 1995, the textile and footwear industry has used silver as a bactericidal and odor control agent. In 2005, silver was used as a fiber in underwear by the English army in Iraq to prevent bacterial infections. Colloidal silver has been used since 1954 to keep swimming pools sterile, to prevent algae growth, and to purify drinking water.
Silver in the 21st century
The medical use of silver has mainly been suppressed after 1938 by the regular antibiotics, an industry that earns so much worldwide, that it beats any other industry profit margin. But nowadays, silver water is increasingly being used as an alternative to antibiotics. It even gets added to existing antibiotics, which makes them up to a factor of thousand times more effective! In the early 1900s, silver tested positive for killing more than 650 different pathogens, and more recently for, among others, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Sars and Ebola.
Due to the growing immunity of bacteria against pharmaceutical antibiotics, more and more studies are appearing in search of a suitable alternative against infectious diseases, for which silver seems to be the ideal candidate.
Nano Silver is available in already diluted form and can be taken directly from the bottle, preferably on an empty stomach. Hold in your mouth for about 1 minute before swallowing. It promotes direct uptake from the oral mucosa into the bloodstream. It can also be applied directly to the skin, mucous membranes, open wound, nail fungus or in the ear or eye.
When buying silver, pay attention to:
- Particle size should be less than 10nm.
- The strength (ppm) must be between 10 and 20ppm.
- It should be at least 40 mv.
- The packaging material, preferably, should be dark violet glass.
- It should be almost fragrance, colorless, and tasteless.
- It should be produced with pure water.
- Form of the particles, if known. Preferably circular/circular.
Caution: when using silver for the first time, it is advisable to build it up slowly due to possible detoxification reactions such as red or itchy skin or a headache. It is known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. With repeated use, the maximum dose can usually be taken immediately.
Due to the biocidal and antiseptic effect of silver, the body will suddenly receive more waste than usual, which may cause detoxification phenomena, also known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. It includes headaches, nausea, sweating, itchy skin, or slight rash and rumbling in the gut. It is easy to prevent by slowly building up the dosage, decreasing the dosage when stopping, or temporary discontinuation of the intake. Also, supplements such as psyllium fibers and chlorella or wheatgrass can help to absorb and excrete the released waste materials (dead pathogens) through the stool. Selenium and NAC, ensure a proper excretion of silver after it has done its job.
Nanosilver can be used for a short or long term
Short-term use for temporary skin or eye infections; as support, for example, together with cranberry during a bladder infection, or together with zinc or echinacea in the event of the flu or a cold.
For chronic or recurring complaints, we recommend using silver for at least four weeks to give the immune system a “boost” and to rid the blood and organs of excess waste.
Silver is also the ideal basis for cleansing the intestine, along with, for example, psyllium fibers and chlorella, followed by, among other things, L-glutamine, probiotics, and zinc for intestinal recovery.
How do I take it based on a silver product with the above key characteristics?
In a spray bottle: spray on the affected area as needed.
In a pipette bottle: apply 1 to 2 drops with a pipette as needed.
As a compress: soak a cotton ball, gauze, or cotton cloth with silver and apply it to the affected area.
5 ml/1 teaspoon to 30 ml/3 tablespoons per day. A maximum of 90 ml/9 tablespoons per day.
Slowly build up the first time using it. Depending on the diversity of complaints and constitution type of the person, start with 5 or 10 ml and build up in increments of 5 or 10 ml per day to 30 or 60 ml.
The average effective dose is 30 ml per day, which can be different individually, for example, 60 or sometimes also 20ml per day. When detoxification reactions occur during the use of silver, reduce the dose, and increase it again until the desired effect is noticed. In the absence of the desired effect, increase the dose to 90 ml per day. We recommend that you use this dose for a maximum of 14 consecutive days. Any increase in the designated 30 ml dose may be desirable in, for example, acute inflammations, prolonged constipation, severe flu or cold sores.
For support: 5ml/1 teaspoon per day
For gum problems: 2 to 3 times daily, a tablespoon immediately after a meal, rinse and swallow, or spray several times.
Babies and children:
0 to 2 years: a few drops up to 5 ml/1 teaspoons per day. A maximum of 1 tablespoon per day.
2 to 6 years: 5 ml/1 teaspoons to 10 ml/1 tablespoon per day. A maximum of 2 tablespoons per day.
6 to 12 years: 10 ml/1 tablespoons up to 20 ml/2 tablespoons per day. A maximum of 3 tablespoons per day.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
Maximum 10 ml per day to prevent detoxification symptoms. For thrush or nipple fissures: 2 sprays 3 times a day.
Also for animals, nanosilver is very useful
For infections, wounds, bladder infection, abscesses, kennel cough, sneezing disease, prevention parasites, scabies, and other skin conditions.
Dosage for Animals
2 x daily, depending on the condition: 0.5-1 teaspoon per 10 kilos of body weight into the animal’s throat or mix it with the food or drinking water.
Due to rapid intake, people can experience a fast reaction.
For example, an eye infection, skin irritation, or painful gums or sore throat can often be remedied within a day, sometimes within 10 minutes. However, detoxification symptoms can also occur quickly. Although they usually don’t, it’s good to be aware of symptoms such as headache, nausea, diarrhea, irritated skin, and excessive sweating. Therefore, always build up the dose slowly, especially when someone is in poor health or is very sensitive.
In the case of chronic complaints, take a liter of silver as a detox cure, and “boost” for the immune system. But this means there is almost always (also) a disturbed intestinal flora. We, therefore, recommend using a probiotic for the restoration of the intestinal flora after the silver cure, preferably in combination with L-glutamine, zinc, multi-mineral supplement, and healthful fatty acids.
Nanosilver is generally translucent, odor, and tasteless. Sometimes very subtle color, smell, and flavor changes can occur.
For nanosilver, we have no known interactions with other nutrients or medications.
In practice, it has been used alongside other supplementation and/or medication for decades without adverse side effects. Note: silver salts may exhibit side effects. See “using silver safely” for this.
Selenium, NAC and vitamin E contribute to the drainage and excretion of (excess) silver.
Why Nano Silver?
Nano Silver is the most effective and completely safe.
Silver comes in several forms. The most famous is bulk silver, as in jewelry and cutlery. Silver salts, silver proteins, elemental or metallic silver, and ionic silver are used for medicinal applications. Silver salts and silver proteins were used primarily in the early 1900 but are now seen as inferior products. They are large, prone to oxidation, and much less potent in their biocidal function. They can also cause Argyria (gray/blue discoloration of the skin). All forms of silver give off ions. Ions are incredibly reactive and act as a potent biocidal and antiseptic because they are highly toxic to pathogens. Ionic silver, however, is not stable. Nano Silver is the newest variant. It is metal silver, in tiny particles, usually around 1 nanometer, with a powerful electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic charge on the interface of the silver particle and the medium in which it floats in “is called zeta potential. A high zeta potential guarantees a stable, safe, and highly effective silver product with an extended expiry date. It is, therefore, a good idea to ask the supplier about this.
It has also been shown that circular metal silver particles under 10 nm possess the most potent biocidal properties without affecting healthy cells.
PPM, particle size, and color
Ppm stands for parts per million and is an assumed standard that says as much as mg per liter. Many people think: “The more ppm, the better”. It is a huge misunderstanding! The effectiveness of silver mainly depends on the shape and particle size.
For comparison, when you put ten coffee beans in a glass of hot water, you don’t have coffee yet. When you break those same beans into pieces, you have a weak extract. Only when you grind the beans into powder with a particular device and then run hot water run through this powder with a unique pressure get good quality coffee.
The smaller the coffee particles, the better the result is. It’s the same with silver and other nano minerals. The smaller the particles, the easier they “dissolve” and can be transported everywhere to do their work. Moreover, by making small particles with the same amount of silver, you have many more particles or ‘soldiers’ for your body.
The color of a good quality colloidal silver should always be transparent. Particles below 20 nm cannot reflect color according to the Tyndall effect. When your silver water is yellow or blue, the particles are many times larger and, therefore, many times less effective and perhaps even toxic. Also, silver can color yellow by oxidation. In our opinion, this is also not desirable for internal use.
How does nano silver work?
It kills viruses, bacteria, fungi, and yeasts and activates cell renewal.
Silver penetrates the cell and deactivates replication
Nanosilver particles can attach to the surface membrane of pathogenic bacteria and other pathogens, block their oxygen supply, causing them to die off. Also, when the particles are small enough and sufficiently loaded, they can penetrate a bacterium or virus, destroy essential proteins such as glycoproteins, RNA, and DNA, causing reproduction to stop and the virus or the bacterium to die. Also, yeasts and fungi are defused by silver in these and other ways [4, 5, 9, 15, 18].
Several studies confirm what Dr. Becker said in the ’70s: Silver induces de-differentiation of cells, which can then form back to stem cells. Stem cells can take any desired form, thus promote healing [15.17].
It means that silver is not only useful as a biocidal product and antiseptic, but also active in the course of healing.
Various studies show that nanosilver particles inhibit a particular type of cancer cells in their growth, and stimulate apoptosis (suicide of the cancer cell), without affecting healthy cells. Dr. Becker and many other physicians, like Dr. Nordstrom of the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, have already described the beneficial effects of silver against cancer for decades. Possible explanations for this were the strengthening of the immune system and the influence on stem cells. The researchers are still unclear as to how exactly it works. According to the oncologist and scientist Dr. Gary Smith, cancer cells without silver cannot de-differentiate, thus increasing their growth [11, 12, 15].
Coli and S. Aureus
Several studies have shown that silver ions rendered bacteria (such as gram-negative Escherichia Coli bacteria and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA)), harmless, by detaching the cytoplasm from the membrane and inactivating the protein in the cell.
In doing so, the DNA in question lost its ability to replicate. Different temperatures and PH values made no difference [4, 9, 18].
Ebola, HIV-1 and other viruses
American Research, which interestingly enough at the time of the Ebola outbreak, was denied, revealed that silver nanoparticles were able to neutralize hemorrhagic (bleed-paired) fever viruses, including Ebola, in the cells by gene expression and stopping virus reproduction.
For the effectiveness of the silver treatment, the silver needed to be either used preventively or taken within a few hours after contamination.
The researchers also discovered that an enzymatic protein called Cathepsin plays an essential role in the replication of the Ebola virus. Silver nanoparticles undermine the activity of Cathepsin, limiting viral replication in the cell, and subsequent spread of the virus.
Interestingly, it was found that concentrations of only 10 ppm seemed to work better than concentrations of 25 or 50 ppm. Also, the smallest silver particles proved much more effective than the larger silver particles. It again confirms that the particle size is much more critical than the ppm (mg/liter) [13.18].
In a two-year study in subjects with chronically recurring airway and ENT complaints, usually caused by viruses, respiratory tract infections remained, and sinus complaints were gone within 1 to 2 weeks when 1 to 6 tablets of nanosilver were consumed daily. Also, remarkably enough, unexpected observations were reported of increased mental alertness, more energy, and improved eyesight for near and distant vision .
Yeasts and fungi
Silver inhibits Candida and other yeasts and fungi, as well as the biofilm. Several studies showed that silver was absorbed by traces of fungi, after which the germination of these fungi was fully inhibited, within 1 minute [16, 18, 19].
The “zombies effect” is also very interesting. In 2015, Scientific Reports published that silver-killed bacteria could kill other living pathogenic bacteria before being cleared by the immune system! The silver-causing bacteria have, after killing, themselves become a biocidal agent for their counterparts. Silver is thus not only a biocide and antiseptic that can do its work over and over again until it is excreted, but it also expands its army .
Circular nanoclusters are most effective
In 2005, J.R. Morones and J.L. Elechiguerra showed that only metallic silver colloids smaller than 10 nm, were able to attach themselves and then invade in the gram-negative bacteria, which were inoculated on agar plates (seeded on growth medium). They reported that these silver nanoclusters were circular. The overall effect of the metallic silver nanoparticles was different from the impact of silver ions, which occurred mainly on the surface of the membrane and caused a protective mechanism in the bacteria. The metallic silver nanoclusters did not create this protective mechanism and could penetrate the bacteria to subsequently disrupt functions such as permeability, replication, and breathing .
Historically and contemporary use of silver
Silver coins, cutlery, and scales have been used since antiquity as natural antibiotics and food and beverage preservative. Greeks, Romans, and old Chinese cooked silver and gold coins along with their diet to promote their health. The first Cowboys, Vaqueros, who were in Spain and Mexico long from home to hats the cattle, used around 1600 silver coins to milk and Other foods to keep fresh longer. They also pressed the silver on their injuries to protect themselves from bacterial infections. Even the nobility used silver tableware to keep illnesses out of the door. There was one disadvantage: the relatively large silver particles that they received from porous tableware were able to stack in tissues, which, under the influence of sunlight, could produce a bluish-grey discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes, called Argyria. Although Argyria is not toxic, it is aesthetically an unpleasant condition that the nobility gave the term “blue blood”.
At the end of the 19th century, colloidal silver was discovered. A form of silver in which super small particles remained “floating” in water by their electromagnetic field.
Until that time, the silver was still mechanically ground to small particles and added to water. Silver salts, proteins, or a dispersive agent was added to keep the product stable and in suspension. It made it so that silver products from that time were less effective and safe than it is now. Nevertheless, great health-promoting results were already still achieved.
In 1893, Carl von Nägeli discovered the “oligodynamic effect”. The phenomenon in which metals such as silver, copper, and tin, already in tiny doses, possess potent biocidal properties when they consist of tiny particles. Nägeli established that oligodynamic silver (nanoparticles) was already effective at less than 5ppm (5 milligrams per liter). So you needed much less of these nanoparticles for the same effect that virtually eliminated the likelihood of any side effects. Nägeli’s research has led to the improvement of technique, using nanoparticles for many antiseptic, medicinal applications. Still, it took some years until entirely safe and very powerful silver products came on the market without any side effects.
Fortunately, through the dedication of passionate producers, we can now fully enjoy the positive effect of silver!
Silver also good for bone fractures and tissue recovery
In addition to its biocidal action, silver also has a therapeutic capacity on tissues such as skin, gums, and bone. Research (experimental) shows accelerated bone growth after bone fractures. This property also appeared to apply to other body tissues. In this way, silver also accelerates the recovery of skin cells in wounds and skin infections. For this reason, silver is widely used in the treatment of burns. It also reduces scar tissue.
Shampoos, patches, creams, and sportswear are enriched with silver for an antibacterial effect and faster skin recovery.
Silver as a weapon against viruses
American researchers, seeking an effective remedy against Ebola and related viruses, found that nanosilver is effective against all viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever (fever with bleeding). They also discovered that nanosilver was especially effective if it was taken preventively or in the first few hours after the infection.
Silver as a diagnostic tool and preventive infection control
Silver is now also used to stain cells after which a diagnosis can be made, for example, neuropathic disorders. In medical devices such as pacemakers and artificial hips, silver is processed to prevent bacterial hairs in the body.
Famous reference books on colloidal silver
Dr. Paul Farber wrote in the last century a book on colloidal silver after he cured himself of Lyme disease and a new fungal infection (Candida) by using colloidal silver. In his book ‘ Micro Silver Bullet ‘, Dr. Farber writes: “Research has shown that colloidal silver has been successfully deployed in many diseases, caused by 650 different pathogens, including acne, rosacea, all sorts of allergies, athlete’s foot, parasites in the blood, cornea inflammation, Lyme disease, malaria, meningitis, pneumonia, psoriasis, shingles, all types of viruses, warts, whooping cough, HPV virus, aids and the MRSA bacterium. **
The book by Dr. Josef Pies: ‘ Colloidal silver – a natural antibiotic ‘ explains how colloidal silver supports our immune system. “In the US, colloidal silver has had a comeback, and there is also growing interest in Europe for this effective agent in the treatment of infectious diseases”, however, silver can be used much more broadly to support the immune system. As a general detox or potent anti-inflammatory inhibitor for eye infections or painful gums. Both short and longer-term.
Note: current legislation does not allow many supplements to promote what it’s for on its packaging. Sometimes, as with silver water, it is not even allowed to insist that it is for internal use.
It would be for consumer safety. Although it is good that there is a restriction on merely putting all kinds of products on the market without proper substantiation, for many products, it incorrectly causes a lot of confusion and lack of information for the consumer and expert. It limits our search for alternative resources for pharmaceutical products that sometimes only partly help or bring many side effects.
In 2002, the EFSA was established, the European Food Safety Administration, which is responsible for the safety of foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals. They determine, among other things, the safety of food additives, agricultural poison, and the ingredients of food supplements. They decide which foodstuffs, nutrients, and statements about food (substances) are allowed. They also determine whether the scientific justification for those substances is ‘ relevant ‘ or not. Independent scientists do not define it.
The EFSA was created to ensure the health and well-being of Europeans. In practice, however, the EFSA has many times proven to have been a conflict of interest. EFSA members often come from the pharmaceutical, food, and chemical industries, such as Monsanto and Bayer. For instance, the approval of the toxic sweetener aspartame seems to be geared only to the own study conducted by the producer of aspartame: Monsanto, despite the abundance of reports and complaints that showed the insecurity of aspartame. Source: ‘ Deadly lies, doctors, and patients deceived ‘ by CF van der Horst. The Codex Alimentarius is a global advisory committee, whose directives are implemented in practice as legislation, including by EFSA. The Codex has existed since the ’60s and has ensured that the industry determines what we can and cannot eat, which ingredients may be used and which advertisements and claims may be made. Although this sounds positive in the first instance, and might also have been positively intended, it seems that money matters are again determining in the decisions. It is well known that food labeled as healthy is not at all healthy, and there is a significant lack of transparent and open information about the bulk of the foodstuffs we buy in supermarkets. The only ones who benefit from this are suppliers of cheap food products.
Since the Codex Alimentarius has introduced the Codex Guideline on Vitamin and Mineral Food Supplements, it has also made it harder for consumers to opt for natural medicines and dietary supplements that can have a powerful and preventively, curative effect. The Codex Alimentarius and EFSA also seem to be influencing each other and have demonstrated several times that they adopt each other’s guidelines. They use the principle that ‘Anything that is not expressly allowed can suddenly be banned’. And so it happened with colloidal silver water. Here too, transparent, open information is lacking. Which industry is benefiting from this? And what about us?
For more information on the safety of nanosilver, see the report: Silver and safety.
Fortunately, there are objective sources of information to be found. We try to contribute to this in the best possible way. Provide yourself with the right information and decide how you want to promote your health.
- Ions, Atoms and Charged Particles, By Francis S. Key and George Mabutt, PhD
- An In-depth History of Silver, medical uses of colloidal silver through the ages, Eric J Rentz, Do, MSc.
- Antibacterial Activity of Silver-nanoparticles Against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, Korean J. Microbiol. Vol. 39, No. 1, 77 – 85 (2011)
- Viral Pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: oligodynamic Ag+for Direct Immune Intervention, Renz,
- Silver Enhances Antibiotic Activity Against Gram-negative Bacteria, Ruben Morones-Ramirez,#1,4Jonathan A. Winkler,#1,2 Catherine S. Spina,4 and James J. Collins1, 2, 3, 4, *, Sep 2012
- A Pharmacological and Toxicological Profile of Silver as an Antimicrobial Agent in Medical Devices, Alan B.G. Lansdown
- Clinical Applications of Gold and Silver Nanocolloids, Guy E Abraham, MD
- Feng OL, Wu J, et al. “A Mechanistic Study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.” J Biomed Mater Res, 2000; 52:662-668.
- Anti-tumor Activity of Silver Nanoparticles in Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites Tumor Model, Department of Biotechnology, Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, at KalasalingamUniversity in India, 2010
- Anti-tumor activity of colloidal silver on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, J. EXCP, clinical cancer Res, November 16, 2010
- Fever viruses Novel Nanotechnology-Based Antiviral Agents: Janice Speshock, Ph.D. Saber Hussain, Ph.D. Applied Biotechnology Branch 711th Human Performance Wing Air Force Research Laboratory
- Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: The zombies-effect, Racheli Ben Kenaz, Wakslak, Rami Pedahzur & David, Avnir, Scientific Reports, April 23, 2015
- Publication: Colloidal Silver, a miraculous tool. Marvin Lee Robey
- Fungicides, Toxic Action of Metal Ions to Fungus spores, P. Miller, S. E. A. McCallanJ. Agric. Food Chem, 1957
- Induced de-differentiation: A possible alternative to embryo NIC stem cell transplants. Neurorehabilitation. 2002; 17 (1): 23-31.
- Opinion report Nanosilver, commissioned by the Environment Association, Anne Dullemeijer, Leon Munting, Guus Reyngoud, and Lisa Spronck, 2011
Nano Mineralen Zilver flier 2019